timeline


  • -13 800 000 000 Big Bang

  • -10 000 000 000 Stars and Galaxies

  • -4 600 000 000 Solar System is formed
  • -4 570 000 000 Sun main-sequence star.
  • -4 500 000 000 Formation of Jupiter.
  • -4 450 000 000 Formation of Saturn.
  • -4 400 000 000 Formation of Uranus.
  • -4 350 000 000 Formation of Neptune.
  • -4 540 000 000 Formation of Earth.
  • -4 530 000 000 Formation of Venus.
  • -4 510 000 000 Formation of Mars.
  • -4 500 000 000 Formation of Mercury.
  • -4 500 000 000 Formation of the Moon

  • -4 000 000 000 life (single-cell organisms)
  • -3 500 000 000 fossils of bacteria, algae
  • -2 400 000 000 oxygenation of earth
  • -1 800 000 000 eukaryotic cells (nucleus)
  • -1 500 000 000 multicellular organisms
  • -1 200 000 000 sexual reproduction, evolution
  • -850 000 000 animals oceans (sponges, jelly)

  • -500 000 000 First plants, fungi and animals in land (arthropods, vertebrates)
  • -450 000 000 Ice Age, -60% of marine life
  • -420 000 000 first forrests
  • -400 000 000 insects+amphibians on land
  • -360 000 000 extinction2
    • -70% marine, -30% terrestrial
  • -300 000 000 Permian period, Amphibians
  • -250 000 000 extinction3
    • 96% marine, -70% terrestrial

  • -230 000 000 First dinosaurs on earth
  • -200 000 000 Pangea splits. birds, flowers
  • -150 000 000 Jurassic period, dinosaurs
  • -100 000 000 cretaceous (t-rex), bees, ants and butterflies.
  • -66 000 000 Asteroid (Mexico → 75% all species gone
  • -65 000 000 mammals, whales and horses

  • -50 000 000 mammals, bats, rats, elephants
  • -25 000 000 Apes, human-like primates
  • -15 000 000 Age of Hominis
  • -10 000 000 Ice Age
  • -3 000 000 Homo habilis (stone tools)
  • -2 000 000 Homo erectus
    • fire, migration, bigger brain
  • -500 000 Homo Neanderthal
  • -300 000 Homo Sapiens
    • language, art, culture
  • -200 000 Stone Age, Neanderthals+Sapiens

  • -100 000 Sapiens age
    • cave paintings, sculptures, music instruments and jewelry
  • -50 000 Anthropocene epoch
  • -8000 End of Ice Age
    • humans in Australia, America and Oceania

  • -3000 Bronze Age
    • metal tools, weapons. complex societies like Mesopotamia, Egypt, China and India
  • -3500 wheel (mesopotamia)
  • -3300 writing (Mesopotamia
  • -3100 calendar (Egypt)
  • -3000 plow (Mesopotamia
  • -3000 silk (China)

  • -2000 Common Era, Anno Domini
  • -2737 tea (China)

  • -1000 - -600 Iron Age
    • First advanced civilizations like Greece, Rome, Persia and China
  • -1050 alphabet (Phoenicia)
  • -900 - -600 Olmec civilization
  • -800s - -700s Homer
  • -776 1st Olympic Games (Greece)
  • -624 - -546 Thales of Miletus
  • -600 philosophy (Greece)
  • -600 coinage (Lydia)
  • -570 - -495 Pythagoras
  • -550 postal system (Persia)
  • -509 Founding of the Roman Republic
  • -508 democracy (Greece)
  • -500 road system (Rome)
  • -500 decimal system (India)
  • -449 law system (Rome)
  • -427 - -347 Plato
  • -384 - -322 Aristotle
  • -312 aqueduct (Rome)
  • -221 Unification of China (Qin Dynasty)
  • -105 paper (China)
  • -100 - -44 Julius Caesar
  • -70 - -19 Virgil
  • -69 - -30 Cleopatra
  • -27 Founding of Rome
  • -6 - 65 Horace

  • 0

  • 121 - 180 Marcus Aurelius
  • 180 antonine plague, pandemic (5m people)

  • 212 roman citizenship to all free men

  • 313 religious tolerance to Christians in the Roman Empire
    • The Edict of Milan, issued by Constantine the Great and Licinius, grants
  • 354 - 430 St. Augustine

  • 400 Hindu-Arabic numerals (India)
  • 410 The Visigoths, Alaric I, sack Rome (first in 800 years)

  • 527 Justinian I emperor of the Byzantine Empire

  • 600 chess (India)
  • 622 Migration (Hijra) of Muhammad from Mecca to Medina
  • 628 zero (India)
  • 632 Muhammad dies, succeeded by Abu Bakr as first caliph

  • 793-1066 Viking Age

  • 800 charlemagne, first holy roman emperor
  • 843 The Treaty of Verdun divides Carolingian Empire into three kingdoms (Louis the Pious)
  • 868 Printing of Diamond Sutra, oldest dated printed book (China)

  • 904 gunpowder (China)
  • 962 Otto I first Holy Roman Emperor by Pope John XII

  • 1024 paper money (China)
  • 1041 printing press (China)
  • 1088 compass (China)
  • 1095 first crusade to liberate Jerusalem from Muslims (Pope Urban II)

  • 1104 Crusaders Capture Acre
  • 1122 Concordat of Worms resolves Controversy between papacy and Holy Roman Empire
  • 1135 Maimonides’ "Mishneh Torah"
  • 1150 Gothic Architecture Emerges
  • 1187 Saladin Captures Jerusalem

  • 1206 Genghis Khan Unites Mongols
  • 1214 - 1294 Roger Bacon
  • 1215 Magna Carta
  • 1240 Mongols Defeat Kiev
  • 1258 Mongols Capture Baghdad
  • 1271 - 1295 Marco Polo’s Travels
  • 1273 Thomas Aquinas "Summa Theologica"
  • 1291 Fall of Acre, End of Crusades

  • 1300 Dante Writes "The Divine Comedy"
  • 1315 - 1317 Great Famine in Europe
  • 1325 Founding of Tenochtitlan
  • 1337 - 1453 Hundred Years’ War
  • 1347 - 1351 - Black Death, -30% europe, Sicily from Asia
  • 1355 University of Oxford Established
  • 1368 Ming Dynasty Begins
  • 1376 - 1395 Acamapichtli*
  • 1380 John Wycliffe's Bible Translation
  • 1396 - 1417 Huitzilihuitl*

  • 1400 - 1468 Johannes Gutenberg
  • 1401 beginning of Renaissance
  • 1402 - 1472 Nezahualcoyotl.
  • 1412 - 1431 Joan of Arc.
  • 1413 perspective in art by Filippo Brunelleschi
  • 1417 - 1427 Chimalpopoca*
  • 1428–1440 Izocoatl*
  • 1439 Platonic Academy manuscripts by Cosimo de' Medici
  • 1440–1469 Motecuhzoma I*
  • 1440 Gutenberg's press
  • 1443 - 1543 Nicolaus Copernicus
  • 1452 - 1519 Da Vinci.
  • 1453 end of Middle ages
  • 1453 Fall of Constantinople to Ottoman Turks
  • 1460s - 1524 Vasco da Gama
  • 1466 - 1520 Moctezuma II
  • 1469–1481 Axayacatl*
  • 1474 - 1521 Juan Ponce de León
  • 1475 - 1564 Michelangelo
  • 1481–1486 Tizoc*
  • 1483 - 1520 Raphael
  • 1483 - 1546 Martin Luther
  • 1485 - 1547 Hernán Cortés

  • 1509 - 1564 John Calvin
  • 1517 Luther's 95 Theses
  • 1543 Copernican Revolution
  • 1547 - 1616 Cervantes.
  • 1564 - 1642 Galileo.
  • 1564 - 1616 Shakespeare.
  • 1564 - 1642 Galileo Galilei
  • 1571 - 1630 Johannes Kepler
  • 1588 - 1679 Thomas Hobbes
  • 1596 - 1650 René Descartes

  • 1605 Don Quixote
  • 1606 - 1669 Rembrandt
  • 1610 Galileo Discovers Jupiter’s Moons
  • 1623 - 1662 Blaise Pascal
  • 1632 - 1704 John Locke
  • 1632 - 1677 Baruch Spinoza
  • 1638 - 1715 Louis XIV
  • 1642 - 1727 Newton.
  • 1643 - 1715 - Reign of Louis XIV
  • 1646 - 1716 Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz
  • 1651 - 1695 Sor Juana.
  • 1653 - 1706 Johann Pachelbel
  • 1678 - 1741 Antonio Vivaldi
  • 1685 - 1750 Johann Sebastian Bach
  • 1687 Newton’s "Principia Mathematica"
  • 1688 English Enlightenment
  • 1694 - 1778 Voltaire.

  • 1706 - 1790 Benjamin Franklin
  • 1711 - 1776 David Hume
  • 1712 - 1778 Jean-Jacques Rousseau
  • 1723 - 1790 Adam Smith
  • 1724 - 1804 Immanuel Kant
  • 1743 - 1826 Thomas Jefferson
  • 1755 - 1793 Marie Antoinette.
  • 1756 - 1791 Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
  • 1756 - 1763 - Seven Years’ War
  • 1769 Watt’s Steam Engine Patented
  • 1769 - 1821 Napoleon.
  • 1770 - 1827 Beethoven.
  • 1770 - 1831 Hegel
  • 1775 - 1817 Jane Austen
  • 1776 American Independence
  • 1776 Adam Smith "The Wealth of Nations"
  • 1789- 1799 - French Revolution
  • 1796 Edward Jenner’s Smallpox Vaccine

  • 1804 - 1815 - Napoleonic Wars
  • 1809 - 1865 Abraham Lincoln
  • 1809 - 1882 Charles Darwin
  • 1813 - 1855 Søren Kierkegaard
  • 1815 - 1852 Ada Lovelace.
  • 1828 - 1910 Leo Tolstoy
  • 1837 Telegraph Invented
  • 1839 - 1842 - First Opium War
  • 1840 - 1926 Claude Monet.
  • 1844 - 1900 Friedrich Nietzsche.
  • 1847 - 1922 Alexander Graham Bell
  • 1847 - 1931 Edison.
  • 1854 - 1900 Oscar Wilde.
  • 1856 - 1943 Nikola Tesla
  • 1859 - 1938 Edmund Husserl.
  • 1859 - 1941 Henri Bergson.
  • 1859 Darwin’s "On the Origin of Specie"
  • 1863 Emancipation Proclamation in U.S.
  • 1863 - 1947 Henry Ford
  • 1866 - 1944 Kandinsky.
  • 1867 - 1934 Marie Curie.
  • 1869 - 1954 Henri Matisse
  • 1872 - 1944 Piet Mondrian
  • 1872 - 1970 Bertrand Russell.
  • 1874 - 1965 Winston Churchill
  • 1876 Bell’s Telephone Patent
  • 1879 - 1919 Emiliano Zapata.
  • 1879 - 1955 Einstein.
  • 1882 - 1945 Franklin D. Roosevelt
  • 1882 Pasteurization Process Developed
  • 1885 - 1962 Niels Bohr
  • 1887 - 1961 Erwin Schrödinger
  • 1888 - 1978 Le Corbusier
  • 1889 - 1976 Martin Heidegger.
  • 1889 - 1977 Chaplin.
  • 1889 - 1951 Wittgenstein.
  • 1895 X-rays Discovered
  • 1890 - 1969 Dwight D. Eisenhower
  • 1890 - 1970 Charles de Gaulle
  • 1899 - 1961 Ernest Hemingway.
  • 1899 - 1986 Jorge Luis Borges.
  • 1899 - 1980 Hitchcock.

  • 1901 - 1966 Walt Disney.
  • 1901 - 1971 Louis Armstrong
  • 1902 - 1994 Karl Popper.
  • 1903 - 1950 George Orwell
  • 1903 Wright Brothers’ First Flight
  • 1904 - 1967 J. Robert Oppenheimer
  • 1905 Einstein’s Theory of Relativity
  • 1906 - 1978 Kurt Gödel
  • 1906 - 1997 Victor Vasarely.
  • 1907 - 1954 Frida Kahlo.
  • 1912 - 1954 Alan Turing.
  • 1912 - 1956 Jackson Pollock
  • 1913 - 1960 Albert Camus.
  • 1914 - 1918 - World War I
  • 1915 - 1982 Ingrid Bergman
  • 1917 - 1963 John F. Kennedy
  • 1917 - 1986 Juan Rulfo.
  • 1918 - 1988 Richard Feynman
  • 1918 - 1958 André Bazin.
  • 1918 - 2013 Nelson Mandela.
  • 1922 Insulin Discovered
  • 1925 - 1995 Gilles Deleuze.
  • 1925 - 2008 Paul Newman
  • 1926 - 1962 Marilyn Monroe
  • 1926 - 1984 Michel Foucault.
  • 1928 - 2007 Sol LeWitt.
  • 1928 - 2019 Agnès Varda.
  • 1928 - 1987 Andy Warhol
  • 1929 - 1993 Audrey Hepburn
  • 1929 - 1982 Grace Kelly
  • 1929 - 2014 Roberto Gómez Bolaños.
  • 1929 Wall Street Crash, Great Depression
  • 1930 - 2012 Neil Armstrong.
  • 1932 - 1984 Truffaut.
  • 1932 - 1986 Andrei Tarkovsky.
  • 1936 Turing's theory of universal classical computers
  • 1939 - 1945 - World War II
  • 1940 - 1980 John Lennon.
  • 1940 - 2023 Pelé
  • 1942 - 2018 Stephen Hawking
  • 1945 United Nations Established
  • 1945 - 1981 Bob Marley.
  • 1947 Transistor Invented
  • 1950 - 1953 Korean War
  • 1951 - 2014 Robin Williams
  • 1952 - 2020 Bernard Stiegler.
  • 1955 - 2011 Steve Jobs.
  • 1954 Polio Vaccine
  • 1969 Humans on the Moon
  • 1970s Miniaturization of electronic technology
  • 1971 ARPANET, Early Internet
  • 1971 Intel Microprocessor
  • 1980 Smallpox Eradicated
  • 1983 HIV Identified
  • 1986 - 2013 Aaron Swartz.
  • 1989 Fall of Berlin Wall
  • 1989 World Wide Web
  • 1991 End of Soviet Union
  • 1991 End of Apartheid
  • 1998 humbelinita
  • 1999 ego

  • 2001 Human Genome Mapped
  • 2007 iPhone
  • 2008 Global Financial Crisis
  • 2011 Arab Spring
  • 2019 Notre-Dame Fire
  • 2020 COVID-19
  • 2021 Mars Rover Landing

note mentions